Friday, July 27, 2012

>Pycnonotus xantholaemus (Yellow-throated Bulbul)

Yellow-throated Bulbul

Yellow-throated Bulbul
Conservation status

Vulnerable (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification
Species:P. xantholaemus
Binomial name
Pycnonotus xantholaemus
(Jerdon, 1845)
Ixos xantholaemus
Brachypus xantholaemus
The Yellow-throated Bulbul is a species of bulbul endemic to southern peninsular India. They are found on scrub habitats on steep, rocky hills many of which are threatened by granite quarrying. It is confusable only with the White-browed Bulbul with which its range overlaps but is distinctively yellow on the head and throat apart from the yellow vent. The calls of this species are very similar to that of the White-browed Bulbul.


This uncrested species of bulbul is olive grey above with a yellow throat, undertail coverts and tail tips. The head is plain while the breast and belly have a grey wash. The closest resembling species is the White-browed Bulbul but this has a supercilium and lacks the yellow throat. Males and females are similar in plumage.
The name of Konda-poda-pigli in Telugu was noted by TC Jerdon.

Distribution and habitat

In scrub habitat
The habitat of the species is rocky, scrub covered hills mostly in the Eastern Ghats and central peninsular India but also in some places in the Western Ghats. The distribution is highly fragmented and populations are very local making hilly habitats of very special conservation concern. Many of these hill forests are threatened by granite quarrying, forest fires and grazing.It has vanished from many sites where it was earlier known.
Some well known locations include the Nandi Hills, Horsley Hills,Gingee,Yercaud and the Biligirirangans.The species is also seen in some parts of the Western Ghats including the Anamalais.The northern limit is believed to be in the Nallamala range but it is suspected that the species may extend in range into the northern Eastern Ghats of Orissa.

Behaviour and ecology

This bird is usually shy and hidden within scrub and is usually detected by its sudden cackling outbursts of calls which are similar to those of the White-browed Bulbul. They feed on insects and the berries of various scrub plant species including Lantana camaraSecurinega leucopyrusToddalia asiaticaErythroxylon monogynumSolanum indicumSantalum album,ZiziphusFicus benghalensisFicus nervosaFicus montanaCanthium dicoccum and Phyllanthus reticulata.

1847 illustration
During hot afternoons and in the dry-season they visit pools of water both to drink and bathe.
The breeding season is June to August. The nest is built in the fork of small tree. Two eggs are laid which hatch in 20 days with the chicks fledging 13 days later.

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