Tuesday, January 31, 2012

>>Modern bird orders: Classification

Modern bird orders: Classification




Other birds (Neoaves)




Basal divergences of modern birds
based on Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy

Cladogram showing the most recent classification of Neoaves, based on several phylogenetic studies.
This is a list of the taxonomic orders in the subclass Neornithes, or modern birds. This list uses the traditional classification (the so-called Clements order), revised by the Sibley-Monroe classification. The list of birds gives a more detailed summary of the orders, including families.
Subclass Neornithes
The subclass Neornithes has two extant superorders –
Superorder Palaeognathae:
The name of the superorder is derived from paleognath, the ancient Greek for "old jaws" in reference to the skeletal anatomy of the palate, which is described as more primitive and reptilian than that in other birds. The Palaeognathae consists of two orders which comprise 49 existing species.
  • Struthioniformes—ostriches, emus, kiwis, and allies
  • Tinamiformes—tinamous
Superorder Neognathae:
The superorder Neognathae comprises 27 orders which have a total of nearly ten thousand species. The Neognathae have undergone adaptive radiation to produce the staggering diversity of form (especially of the bill and feet), function, and behaviour that are seen today.
The orders comprising the Neognathae are:
  • Anseriformes—waterfowl
  • Galliformes—fowl
  • Charadriiformes—gulls, button-quails, plovers and allies
  • Gaviiformes—loons
  • Podicipediformes—grebes
  • Procellariiformes—albatrosses, petrels, and allies
  • Sphenisciformes—penguins
  • Pelecaniformes—pelicans and allies
  • Phaethontiformes—tropicbirds
  • Ciconiiformes—storks and allies
  • Cathartiformes—New World vultures
  • Phoenicopteriformes—flamingos
  • Falconiformes—falcons, eagles, hawks and allies
  • Gruiformes—cranes and allies
  • Pteroclidiformes—sandgrouse
  • Columbiformes—doves and pigeons
  • Psittaciformes—parrots and allies
  • Cuculiformes—cuckoos and turacos
  • Opisthocomiformes—hoatzin
  • Strigiformes—owls
  • Caprimulgiformes—nightjars and allies
  • Apodiformes—swifts and hummingbirds
  • Coraciiformes—kingfishers and allies
  • Piciformes—woodpeckers and allies
  • Trogoniformes—trogons
  • Coliiformes—mousebirds
  • Passeriformes—passerines
The radically different Sibley-Monroe classification (Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy), based on molecular data, found widespread adoption in a few aspects, as recent molecular, fossil, and anatomical evidence supported the Galloanserae.

No comments: