Friday, April 20, 2012

>Thalassarche chrysostoma (Grey-headed Albatross)

Grey-headed Albatross

Grey-headed Albatross
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Species:T. chrysostoma
Binomial name
Thalassarche chrysostoma
Diomedea chrysostoma
The Grey-headed AlbatrossThalassarche chrysostoma, also known as the Grey-headed Mollymawk, is a large seabird from the albatross family. It has a circumpolar distribution, nesting on isolated islands in the Southern Ocean and feeding at high latitudes, further south than any of the other mollymawks. Its name derives from its ashy-grey head, throat and upper neck.


Mollymawks are a type of albatross that belong to the Diomedeidae family and come from the Procellariiformes order, along with shearwatersfulmarsstorm-petrels, and diving-petrels. They share certain identifying features. First, they have nasal passages that attach to the upper bill called naricorns. Although the nostrils on the Albatross are on the sides of the bill. The bills of Procellariiformes are also unique in that they are split into between 7 and 9 horny plates. Finally, they produce a stomach oil made up of wax esters and triglycerides that is stored in the proventriculus. This is used against predators as well as an energy rich food source for chicks and for the adults during their long flights. They also have a salt gland that is situated above the nasal passage and helps desalinate their bodies, due to the high amount of ocean water that they imbibe. It excretes a concentrated brine from the nostrils.


The meaning of the name chrysostoma is derived from two Greek words. Khrusos' means goldand stoma means the mouth, in reference to its golden bill.


The Grey-headed Albatross averages 81 cm (32 in) in length and 2.2 m (7.2 ft) in wingspan. Weight can range from 2.8 to 4.4 kg (6.2 to 9.7 lb), with a mean mass of 3.65 kg (8.0 lb). It has a dark ashy-grey head, throat, and upper neck, and its upper wings, mantle, and tail, are almost black. It has a white rump, underparts, and a white crescent behind its eyes. Its bill is black, with bright yellow upper and lower ridges, thatt shades to pink-orange at the tip. Its underwings are white with a lot of black on the leading edge and less on the trailing edge. Juveniles have a black bill and head and a darker nape. Its eye crescent is indistinct and its underwing is almost completely dark.

Range and habitat

Breeding Population and Trends
South Georgia Island48,000 pair2006Declining
Marion Island6,200 pair2003Stable
Prince Edward Island3,000 pair2003
Campbell Island7,800 pair2004Declining
Macquarie Island84 pair1998
Crozet Islands5,940 pair1998
Kerguelen Islands7,905 pair1998
Islas Diego Ramirez16,408 pair2002
Grey-headed Albatrosses nest in colonies on several islands in the Southern Ocean, with large colonies on South Georgia in the South Atlantic, and smaller colonies onIslas Diego RamírezKerguelen IslandsCrozet IslandsMarion Island, and Prince Edward Island in the Indian OceanCampbell Island and Macquarie Island south of  New Zealand, and Chile. While breeding, they will forage for food within or south of the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone. Birds that roost in the Marion Island area forage for food in the sub-tropical zone. Juveniles or non-breeding adults fly freely throughout all the southern oceans, north to 35°S.


Chick at nest


At sea the Grey-headed Albatross is highly pelagic, more so than other mollymawks, feeding in the open oceans rather than over the continental shelves. They feed predominantly on squid, taking also some fish, crustacea,carrioncephalapods, and lampreys. Krill is less important as a food source for this species, reflecting their more pelagic feeding range. They are capable of diving as deep as 7 m (23 ft) to chase prey, but do not do so frequently.


A single egg is laid in a large nest, typically built on steep slopes or cliffs with tussock grass, and incubated for 72 days. Studies at South Georgia's Bird Island have shown that the growing chick is fed 616 g (21.7 oz) of food every 1.2 days, with the chick increasing in weight to around 4,900 g (170 oz). Chicks then tend to lose weight before fledging, which happens after 141 days. Chick will generally not return to the colony for 6–7 years after fledging, and will not breed for the first time until several years after that. If a pair of has managed to successfully raise a chick it will not breed in the following year, taking the year off. During this time spent away from the colony they can cover great distances, often circling the globe several times.


Flying in Drake's Passage, Southern Ocean
The IUCN classifies this bird as vulnerable due to rapidly declining numbers. It has an occurrence range of 79,000,000 km2 (31,000,000 sq mi) and a breeding range of 1,800 km2 (690 sq mi),with a population, estimated in 2004, of 250,000. Estimates have place 48,000 pairs atSouth Georgia Island, 6,200 on Marion Island, 3,000 pairs on Prince Edward Island,7,800 pairs on Campbell Island, 16,408 pairs in Chile, 84 pairs on Macquarie Island, 5,940 on Crozet Island, and 7,905 on Kerguelen Islands
Populations have been shrinking based on different studies. Bird Island numbers have been reduced 20% to 30% in the last 30 years.Marion Island registered 1.75% reduction per year until 1992 and now appears to be stable. Campbell Island has seen reduction of 79% to 87% since the 1940s.Overall, the trends looks like a 30-40% reduction over 90 years (3 generations).Illegal or unregulated fishing in the Indian Ocean for the Patagonian toothfish,Dissostichus eleginoides resulted in 10 - 20,000 dead Albatrosses, mainly this species, in 1997 and 1998. Longline fishing is responsible for other deaths. Finally, possible food loss due to rising ocean temperatures may be affecting this species.
To assist this species, studies are being undertaken at most of the islands. Also, Prince Edward Island is a special nature preserve, and Campbell Island and Macquarie Island are World Heritage Sites.

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